1.2.4 – Identify the relevant stakeholders when planning a new system

Stakeholders who are people who are involved, have an interest or concern within a company.

These can be:

  • Employees
  • Directors
  • Owners
  • Suppliers
  • And one of the most important ….. Customers!

1.2.5 – Describe methods of obtaining requirements from stakeholders

How do companies get the information they need from the stakeholders?


Involves systems analyst walking around the organisation watching how things are done with his/her own eyes.


  • Possibility of gathering first-hand, unbiased information


  • Often people don’t work the way they normally do when being observed


Involves the systems analyst interviewing key people within the system to find out how it works.


  • Allows a lot of very detailed information to be gathered
  • People can be asked about what they don’t like on the system


  • Takes a long time


Involves the systems analysts handing out questionnaires for people to fill out.


  • Large amount of data from a large group can be gathered
  • Takes little time
  • Simple


  • It is hard to ask the ‘right question’
  • Information gathered is limited by questionnaire
  • It may not be taken seriously

Collecting documents: 

Involves the systems analysts looking in the documents in the archive to try to find out how the present system works


  • Detailed information about the present system can be gathered
  • It can be seen where the old system has problems


  • Time consuming
  • Just looking at the forms may be confusing

1.2.6 – Describe appropriate techniques for gathering the information needed to arrive at a workable solution

Examining current systems

This is a process that involves the detailed examination of the current system.

Examining competing products

This may include the analysis of competitive factors, their benefits, vulnerabilities and their successful characteristics.

We should keep in mind that a modern  information system should be planned to:

  • Increase client trust
  • Preserve brand strength
  • Preserve organization reputation
  • Maintain corporate resiliency
  • Enhance organizational piece

1.2.7 – Construct suitable representations to illustrate system requirements

System flow charts: 

Diagrams representing how different parts of the system are linked together and how the system should work in general.

Data flow diagrams

Diagrams representing how information is moving through the system together with identifying all relevant inputs and outputs to the system.

Structure charts

These are diagrams representing the organization of a system, usually with showing the different parts in hierarchical order. 

See the source image

1.2.8 – Describe the purpose of prototypes to demonstrate the proposed system to the client

  • Prototypes are abstract representations of the system uOften focusing on only one or two key aspects of the system
  • Each component of the system can be tested before implementing
  • Can be used to illustrate the working of the future system to the client
  • Saves money and time
See the source image

1.2.9 – Discuss the importance of iteration during the design process

Designing and creating the system usually happens in 5 stages: Planning, analysis, design, implementation, maintenance.

However, the maintenance step is often let out because in maintenance you plan, analyse, design and implement changes, so the circle effectively begins from the beginning again.

This iterative process happens during the entire product life cycle.

Consider how Apple went from Iphone 1, 2 ,3,4, 4S etc

1.2.10 – Explain the possible consequences of failing to involve the end-user in the design process

For a system to be successful, the analysis and the design must involve all key stakeholders including the client (the person or organization paying for the project) and the end users (people who will use the system).

With poorly-defined stakeholder goals it is unlikely to be successful.

1.2.11 – Discuss the social and ethical issues associated with the introduction of new IT systems

  • This is a huge area for discussion, but consider some of the following:
  • The recent development in Artificial Intelligence and peoples jobs
  • Can employ people in other countries to do work cheaper uPeople are connected to device so should the be available 24/7 for work
  • Cultures being diluted as everyone is connected
  • Computers to replace face to face interactions?
  • Digital divide – will older people be left behind and younger people be forced to work with technology